Green Design 

Priorities for Green Design: Jeremy Faludi

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for everyone listening welcome anybodywho took a break or just joining welcomeback Jeremy Flutie is an assistantprofessor at Dartmouth College's ThayerSchool of Engineering specializing insustainable design methods and green 3dprinting he has also been a sustainabledesign consultant for 18 years duringwhich time he's done a lot of amazingstuff he's written venture Wellstools for design and sustainability theOECD's recommendations on green 3dprinting policy and co-authored cradleto cradle products innovationInstitute's design for certificationtraining he also created Street nature'score calm design the prototype of asknature org for the polemic reinstituteand he has also contributed six books onsustainability so we are really lookingforward to this onetake it away Jeremy great thanks andjust one last question for you whileyou're still on mic can you see my mouseor will I have to talk about where I'mgesturing we can see it yeah we can seeit move around and I think sometimesit'll disappear when you don't move ittoo long but it should then pop back inso it does look visible that's perfectokayyeah thank you very much Jeff so I amgonna give you folks a little bit aboutfirehose of data here so I hope the gearup for that I'm going to talk about whatyour priorities for sustainabilityshould be basically if you could inventanything in the world where would you dothe most good or if you could start anew business or if you could innovatesome industry where would you do themost good and what I'm going to do hereis not just make a list but actuallyderive for you from the raw data andthis is why it's going to be a firehoseof information there will be lots ofgraphs and things that will go by veryquickly don't worry too much you canalways watch this video again and and Ican also make it a little PDF of theslides so getting into it the biggestproblems in terms of what are the impactare generally agreed uponas climate change species extinctionresource depletion pollutionoverpopulation and social injustice butwhat's causing these problems is it isit the paper bag at grocery store aversus a plastic bag or is it how youget the store so climate change thebiggest impact here this is data fromthe US also world data in a minute butmost of the greenhouse gas emissions areco2 and if you look at the middle columnhere the uses that are causing those arethe top one here is road travel that'sactually mostly transportation of peoplenot stuff but then the next two here areresidential and commercial buildings andif you put the two of those togetherthey're actually the biggest singlecontributor to greenhouse gases in theUS and then there's variousmanufacturing industries chemicalindustry here is big cement steel andpaper are also significant and then downat the bottom is agriculture in purpleyou'll see livestock and and manurethat's sort of the the methane that youhear about from cows but actually abigger impact is nitrous oxide offgassing from soil when you till the soilit emits nekross oxide and so that'sactually a bigger impact than thanmethane from livestock and looking atworld data the energy use is a smallerfactor and the really big factor herebecomes land-use change which is mostlycutting down forests to make food andand then agriculture in itself is a muchbigger impact as well again agriculturalsoils are very big and and livestock aswell and so what does this mean it meansthat the biggest sources of climatechange our buildings and transport ofpeople and food agriculture electricitygenerationis what's causing the impact of thebuilding industry and it's also relevantto transport because of electric carsand then some other industries are alsovery big chemicals cement steel andpaper so I would also argue that if youwant to fix any of these industries notany but if you want to fix buildings intransportation you should also look atcities because cities that are dense andand efficiently laid out fix bothbuildings and transportation at the sametime because a large apartment complexcan use about half the energy per personas a single-family home even for anaverage construction apartment complexversus a really high efficiencysingle-family home it's just moreefficient to have most of the otherwalls at the same temperature becausethere's another person living on that onthe other side of that wall rather thanthe outside hot air or cold layer of theclimate that you're living in and samething with transportation dense citiesmake walking and biking and publictransit viable both economically andjust practically where it's they're justnot viableif you live in sprawling suburbs sothat's why cities are the top way to fixclimate change and some good examples ofthisright here we have a dense urban blockand it doesn't need to be a skyscraperactually most of Europe is already denseenough the average European has abouthalf the environmental impacts perperson as the average American justbecause of the dense cities that youfolks live in and so you know whatfive-story row houses are fineit doesn't have to be these thesetowering concrete blocksbut speaking of concrete next is coleraa form of concrete that actuallysequester's carbon duringmanufacture rather than giving it offbelow that is one of many electric carseverybody loves electric cars and thenover on this side here is a power plantfrom a company called all power labsthat uses gasification and biochar ofagricultural waste to create what theysay is actually a carbon negative fuelor on the upper left here this used tobe my commute it was about ten feet fromthe bed to the desk and so this is toillustrate that you don't have to be aengineer in the transportation industryyou don't have to build physical thingsyou don't have to build buildings withcities to to fix these industries you assoftware people can have a very bigimpact by yourself because theirinterfaces and technology forvideoconferencing and sharing files andthings like that can make working fromhome more viable over for City designthis website up here is called WalkScore and it does what you might say itmight think it calculates thewalkability of any address that you typein you can type in any address in the USand I think some other countries as welland it's a way that you as software orweb UX people can help to provide thetools for better city design or betterinfrastructure design and below that isa user interface where someone wastrying to replace paper by makingdigital interfaces more intuitive andmore tactile so again you don't have tobe in the paper industry to fix thepaper industry and finally over here wehave building energy modeling softwareyou don't have to be an architect or abuilding engineer to fix the buildingindustry actually those people need waybetter toolsfor designing good buildings they needbetter analytics to predict the energyuse and they need better interfaces forthe analytics the do exist so that youdon't need to be a PhD in order tooperate the software but anyone can doit okay so that was it four prioritiesfor climate change then priorities forspecies extinction are there sort ofsimpler this is a chart of threats tobiodiversity where the rows aredifferent kinds of biomes in forestdryland marine etc and then the columnsare the different kinds of threats beingfaced and the the red boxes are thebiggest threats and the arrows are howfast those threats are increasing so theone with the most red boxes here the onewith the greatest threats is habitatchange that is basically land-use changeagain deforestation and other conversionof wild lands to farm lands a little bitof it is from urban sprawl but over 90percent of it is from agriculture andthen the next one the next most damagingone is pollution monthly from nitrogenand phosphorus and those are generallyfrom fertilizers from agriculture nextone is over exploitation that isoverfishing over farming over overharvesting again mostly agricultureinvasive species and that is againmostly from agriculture coming in andbringing new species to a location so Ithink you're probably seeing a trendhere the only thing on this chart thatis not related to agriculture is climatechangeand so if you want to fix speciesextinction it's really all about fixingfood systems by making them landefficient and by having them generateless pollution and and then we'll alsosee resource depletion and climatechange we already saw so what are somesolutions people are doing well overhere we have a massive scale hydroponicfarming called vertical farming and thisis still pretty theoretical but evenordinary hydroponic farms today are themost land form of agriculture on theplanet in fact just for lettuce you cangrow about 17 times as much lettuce perunit of area of land as you can innormal outside fields with hydroponicsand you can make hydroponics even moreefficient with aquaponics up here sothis is where you combine fish farmingand hydroponics together in aclosed-loop system and that also helpsto avoid overfishing obviously and thendown below here we have more simplelow-tech urban farming there's a lot ofunused land in cities that could be usedfor growing food and so that's it fortrees extinction then if you want to fixresource depletion what should you workon well if you look at water consumptionyou might think that efficient hours areway to go actually that's totallyirrelevant um pretty much all of thewater that you ever see your self usingall your toilets and showers and sinksthat's about 8 percent of your water usewhereas 22 percent of your water use isembodied in the products that you buythe chair you're sitting in the computerthat you're watching this video throughand seventy percent of your water use isfor irrigating crops and crop irrigationis really inefficientif that water is wasted before it evergets to the crops if you care aboutwater consumption work on efficientirrigation and also work on differentchoices for what's on the menu so beefis by far the most water consumptiveform of food it's it uses about 15,000liters of water to make one kilo of beefon your plate that's about five times asmuch as a kilo of chicken ten times asmuch as a kilo of wheat and if you lookat resources more generally mineralstrees and and other agricultural orforest products metals etc this is achart of us material usage over the lasthundred years you can see how much it'sincreased and the biggest chunk herethis yellow part of the bar is crushedstone sand and gravel did you know thatthree-quarters of your material use byweight was stone sand and gravel whatare you using all that for you are usingthat for concrete in roads and buildingsand then the next one the blue isindustrial minerals that's also partlybuildings like drywall and it'sagriculture and the chemical industrythe purple and pink are metals those aremostly cars and appliances and buildingsthen the yellow is a non-renewableorganics that's plastics and then thebottom one a growth from Forest Productsthat's again wood for buildings andpaper and and other stuff and thenthere's rare minerals for example indiumhere is used in LCD screens thatprobably all of you are watching thisthrough depending on who you ask there'sthere's only a few years maybe a decadeleft of indium in the Earth's crustbefore we run out or have to usedifferent materials and there are a lotof other rare mineralsas well the electronics industry is abig culprit as are some other chemicalindustries but there's good news here aswell lots of rare minerals are alreadyhighly recycled like lead here almostthree-quarters of the lid in the economyis already recycled we just need to getthat to 100% for everythingso for resource depletion the biggestculprits are buildings transport ofpeople again the concrete used in roadsand bridges and things and and foodespecially meat and and then chemicalindustry paper industry electronics someothers and again I would say cities arethe top priority here because they canfix buildings and transportation at thesame time dense cities make buildingshave fewer resources per person becauseyou're sharing most of the walls withother people and transportation ofpeople becomes more resource resourceefficient because you just need fewerroads you have more people per area ofroad and what are good things thatpeople are doing well up here this is abuilding material and it's called kireiboard so out of japan and it's made ofwaste fiber from sorghum farmingso it's agricultural waste but pressedtogether it makes this beautiful texturefor countertops or cabinetry stuff likethat over here the company method hasbeen making a hundred percent of theirbottles out of recycled plastic for manyyears now and down below here the goldmining company niranda they discoveredin the 80s that there were 17 times asmuch gold in he waste as there was inthe or that they were digging up fromtheir minds andso they became an e-waste recyclersthey're actually one of the world'sbiggest e-waste recyclers because it'sprofitable for them and then finallyover herethis is not a real beef burger this isan impossible foods burger which is a itapparently is the most realistic tastingbeef substitute and it's made entirelyfrom plantsokay so pollution this guy fishing hereyou might think that all the plasticbottles in the water are the biggestproblem but actually that's not thebiggest problemthe biggest problem that kills fish inwater is pollution from agriculture itspesticides and fertilizers and then totreatments plants industrial justdischarges from various manufacturingindustries and yeah and that's those arethe biggest sources for water pollutantfor air pollution the biggest one iselectricity generation mostly coal-firedpower plants and then highway vehiclesskipping so lanius off highway vehiclesand so so transportation is a big sourceof air pollution and then going downfurther you'll see solvent utilizationand more fuel combustion formanufacturing industries etc and if youlook at solid waste this is another onelike water where all the waste that youever see all the landfill that you putout from your house or your businessthat's all municipal waste as big orbigger is construction and demolitionwaste so it's important to recycle paperbut it's even more important recyclebuildings and then industrial wastethat's from manufacturing special wasteis from mining so that is all the wastefrom the resources that go into buildingyour laptop and your chair and youretc and and then this slice here is justfrom the coal power industry toxicchemicals get complicated so I'm goingto sort of blow past this but but themost common exposure routes if you lookat these are dietary sources orcontaminated food and water from waterpollution and air-pollutionand indoor air quality mostly fromsolvents and paints those are the thoseare the main things and so combining allof these we again see this big threerepeating again food and agriculturebuildings transport of peopleelectricity generation and then herespecifically the chemicals in questionare mostly solvents like paints andadhesives and then electronics andplastics again so what are some goodthings that people are doing well thisis a circuit board here where theinstead of being made on fiberglass itis made of chicken feathers and soyplastic made into a composite that isjust as strong and that and that is justas electrically insulating and over herewe have another circuit board where thetraces are made not of copper or anyother metal but our conductive carbonink and it's inkjet printed so there isZERO waste so that's a wonderful way toreduce impact of electronics you couldin theory combine these and maybe evenmake compostable circuit boards that's aways off but it's a great vision for thefuture if you want to fix solvents andpaints this is paint made out of milkand it's actually a more than 100 yearold technology but it still works todayand so it replaces toxic solvents withactual milkand over here is an alternative toplastic called zelf oh and it'scellulose composite basically and it'sjust pressed and heated basically wastewood fiber that becomes this structuraland beautiful material okay so that wasit for pollution and if you want to fixoverpopulation what should you do well alot of people assume that contraceptionavailability is the main thing thefamily planning is the main thingit is important but it's not enough byitself so this is a little graph ofincrease in contraception availabilityover a period of about 30-40 years in inIndia and the corresponding reduction inbirth rate you see that there's only afew percent reduction in birth rate eventhough the rate of contraceptionavailability was multiplied by more thana factor of four however if you look atrural versus urban populations you'llsee an enormous difference so the orangebars are rural populations though graybars are urban non slum areas so this ispeople living in cities with jobs andand then though the sort of light orangeare urban slums and so you can see thatgoing from rural locations to citieswith jobs can cut population growthrates by a factor of two in some placesand education of women is also a hugedriving factor so even if you don't careabout social justice of Education withwomen just from a purely environmentalpoint of view it's still a huge benefitfor a population you can see that goingfrom no education the light blue bar tojust primary school education andand secondary school education in greencan cut birth rate again by a factor oftwo sometimes even a factor of three soif you want to fix overpopulation themost important thing is empowerment ofwomen especially in developing countriesand this can happen through educationeconomic self-determination and socialor political equality we'll talk moreabout that in a second and then citiesare once again a huge factor andobviously access to birth control andfamily planning is is it requiredenabler so those were it forenvironmental factors then for the forthe remainder of talking going to talkabout social factors and socialinjustice is a combination of thesethings and I'm not going to get into allof these in the interest of time but thebasically the track here is socialinjustice is barriers to opportunity inwealth creation political influencehealth education and culture or meaningthis doesn't mean that everyone in theworld needs to be equally wealthy orequally politically influential but weneed to not have barriers to opportunitythere and so the the key concept here isthe difference between equality andequity so no running track ever that youwill ever see in any Olympic or evenhigh school or other track and fieldevent is ever built the way that the toptrack is because that is equality it'shaving everybody start at the same placebut it fails to take into account thetilt of the playing field if you willthe fact that these outside lanes arelonger than the inside lanes and so thatperson needs to run farther to get tothe finishso this is why every track and fieldmeet that you ever see has the startingline staggered because that is equity itis a fair start for everyonecompared to the finish line and this isa hard thing for most of us to noticeit's very hard to recognize yourprivilege there's actually apsychological effect named after thisbecause it's a known factor inpsychology it's called the headwindstailwind effect we are very conscious ofthe headwinds the things that make lifehard for us we don't notice when therearen't problems and an example forwealth inequality and again this is anAmerican example this is that's who Iusually give these presentations to butif you look at what most Americans whatthe average American thinks is thedistribution of wealth in the countrythey think that the top 20% most richestAmericans own around 60% of the wealthand then next 20% down to they thepoorest 20% only own about 5% of thewealth and the average American againthis is across liberals andconservatives of the average Americanthinks that well should be distributedthis way so that the richest 20% ofpeople own about 30 or 35 percent of thewealth and that the poorest 20% ofpeople own about 10% of wealth well thisis the actual distribution of wealth inAmericaso what causes this kind of wealthinequality or are actually not justgoing to causes but this is comparingwealth inequality to economic growth sothe blue graph here is overtime this isit's similar to the previous slide butit's just looking at the top one percentof richest Americans and the percent ofwealth that they own so back in the1930s they owned about fifty percent ofwealth in America and that fell throughthe 50s 60s and 70s and has been risingagain ever since so so today it's almostas big as it was during the GreatDepression 1930s and what happened wasthe way that this came down was heavytaxation so in the Great Depressionthere was a there was a New Deal andthen there was World War two which wasactually the greatest redistribution ofwealth the world has ever seen not justin the US but throughout Europe and Asiaas well and and these massive taxes forthe rich actually the the top tax ratewas over ninety percent from 1951 to1963 the sort of golden era of AmericanProgress and you can see that thisbottom graph here is growth in GDP andyou'll see that the highest growth ratesof GDP happened when wealth was gettingredistributed the most when the richest1% was having a lower and lower share ofthe total wealth of the country and nowthat it's been going back up the GDPgrowth in America has been falling againand how is wealth distributed again thisis American data it's very closely tiedto race and so wealth inequality meansracial inequality at least in the u.s.you can see that quite families haveabout five times the five to ten timesthe wealth as african-americans andLatinos and what's driving that racialwealth gap well almost a third of it ishome ownership so if you want to fixwealth inequality make it easier forvirtual minorities to buy homes and thenhousehold income you know make it easierfor them to get jobs and then collegeeducation unemployment cetera so whatare some people doing to improve thiswell up here is a project that Iactually worked on to basically supportentrepreneurs in developing countriesit's a cargo carrying bicycle that wasmade to be very affordable so thatfarmers and other crafts people can gettheir goods to market in an affordableway some companies do a donation modelthis is a sock company called bombas andfor every sock that you buy theyactually manufacture two socks they sendone to you one pair to you and one pairto people in need either developingcountries or the homeless in the u.s.down here is a shot from Goodwill it's awell-established companies it's a thriftstore in the US and they do a lot of jobtraining particularly reaching out tominorities to give them job skills sothat they can get better jobs at othercompanies and then Kiva is company thatdoes micro loans so they provide loansdirectly to people again often indeveloping countries that would notnormally have access to capital and theneducation what are the biggest barriersto education around thethe main ones are lack of money lack ofinfrastructure so buildings bookscomputers etc and skilled teachers andthen gender inequality and other lack ofaccess so having stuff that's not inyour native language or that's notaccessible if you were blind or deaf etcor in places where it's not safe eitherwar zones or in poor communities in incities or developed countries wherethere's so much violence due to povertyand and drugs and things like that thatpeople can't safely go to school sothings that people are doing to fix thisare there's a lot of things there'sDonorsChoose is a platform that's sortof like Kickstarter for education butit's a place where teachers postprojects that they want funded and thenyou or anyone else can go to thatwebsite and donate money to that projectyou can say oh yeah that that soundslike a really cool project that deservesmoney and you can help fix the the lackof wealth or the the lack of moneyavailable for different schools the onein the upper right is the One Laptop Perchild project and actually I put thishere as a warning because this isactually a spectacular fail by basicallyall accounts it was an MIT professorthat basically thought that all youneeded to do to fix education in thedeveloping world was to provide laptopsto to people that were affordable andthat kids would just teach themselveshow to code and this was a great exampleof someone not recognizing their ownprivilege all the infrastructure andfamily support and other resources thatmade it possible for for him to teachhimself a lot of stuff and notacknowledging the importantof teachers and communities andinfrastructure in education down here isa company called little bits that makeeducational electronic toys that makesit more accessible and easy and fun tolearn and there's typical was to makeengineering and electronics moreacceptable to girls and then finallyhere Khan Academy is probably the mostfamous online education site in theworld it's free to use and so anyonewith a computer and good bandwidth canget hundreds or thousands of lessons onmath physics biology engineering allkinds of stuff from from middle schoollevel all the way up to to college leveland so that was a whole lot of stuffright so going back to our originalpoint if you could invent anything wherewould you do the most good and lookingat all these things both from where thebiggest problems are and from wherepeople are creating solutions I onceagain say that the the top prioritiesare building dense cities that are alsolivable that people want to live in andthat are healthy and and and culturallylife-affirmingand then fixing buildings both energyuse and resource use and food andagriculture so that is again largelyland efficiency as well as pollution andresource use and transportation ofpeople again this is both energy and theresource use of transportation andelectricity generation empowering womenjobs and wealth political access andother industry to like the chemicalindustry paper country electronicsthis is this is a list of the biggestareas and again you don't have to be inthe building industry you don't need tobe an architect to help fix the buildingindustry you can write software you cancreate better interfaces to fix thatindustry again you don't need to build abetter electric car to help transportpeople you can build better videoconferencing better file sharing bettercollaboration tools to the people don'tneed to physically move as much andreally if you do anything on this listdon't worry about whether it's numberone or number seven or number nine ifyou work on anything on this list youcan make a huge difference in the worldall of these industries are just full ofnew positive solutions waiting to beborn and that is it for my talk thankyou very much

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