okay welcome everyone to the inventinggreen workshop we're delighted that youcould join us today please for those ofyou who are coming in and those of youwho are already seated fill out yoursurveys if you have not done so alreadythis is very important and please comefind me and give them to me when you'refinished with them I mean me Kaplan theenvironmental responsibility fellow withbig ideas the other big ideas teammembers here are Philip Danny andFrancis please wave guys hey look aroundthose are the people that you can askfor help if you need itbefore we get started I'd like tointroduce Cindy Cooper who is theprogram officer at the Lemelsonfoundation foundation and we'redelighted that she could join us inpartnership with the Lemelson foundationthis year Big Ideas has piloted anenvironmental responsibility curriculumincluding these two inventing greenworkshops with an eye on making thistheme across all categories next yearCindy supports us and developing countryhigher education institutions thatpromote invention and invention basedenterprises that improve lives she has astrong interest in building and growingeco systems that help young impactdriven entrepreneurs move theirinventive ideas out of the lab and intothe market after we hear from Cindywe'll ask you all to have arepresentative from your group or ifyou're here without a group justyourself introduce yourself in 30seconds or less and I mean that withjust the problem that you are working tosolve and the name of your project and asentence if you can fit it about yourproject but very very fast we just wanteveryone to get a sense of who's in theroom yeah good cool without further adohere Cindy okay well this isn't about meso I'm going to keep my comments short Iam really excited to be here and meetyou all and hear what you're working onas mehe said I am a program officer at theLemelson foundation are any of youfamiliar with the Lemelson foundationgreat so that's why I'm hereso I'm here because we funded thisproject and in particular an aspect ofit so let me give you just a little bitof context about the foundation GeriLemelson who the foundation is namedafter was a prolific inventor he hadmore than 600 patents in his lifetimeand he was a passionate believer in theimportance of invention for solving ourmost pressing problems and so I think alot of you can relate to that and hebelieved in the power of invention tocreate strong economies to lead tobusinesses that can create jobs andstrengthen the economy but there was youknow not enough activity in supportingfuture inventors in his mind he saw areal gap and in the education system sothe Lemelson foundation our mission isimproving lives through invention and wedo that by supporting the nextgeneration of inventors by supportingeducational programs and businesssupport programs so that folks cancreate important solutions to pressingproblems we also believe that as we'resolving today's problems we hopefullywon't create the new problems oftomorrow in the process and so that'swhere you all come in and thiscompetition comes in and I think a lotof competitions which is wonderful arefocused on solving pressing problems butif you look at different competitionsand criteria not a lot of them aretalking about things like theenvironmental impact of the solutionsbeing created so it's often very focusedon the end goal some problem that getssolved but what if you're creatingsomething putting something in the worldand for the Lemelson foundation thefocus is on hardware inventing and it'sgoing to pollute the environment or it'sgoing to create you know exorbitantamounts of energy use in the process allkinds of things that can happen in thecreation of things that need to bethought about at the beginning and so wewanted to see well how could we supportstudents who arethinking about this to have theeducation and tools and inspiration toconsider environmental impact early onyou know before they've made some reallycritical decisions so hopefully you'vegotten some of that this is our pilotand you know I'm sure we're learning alot so thank you all you didn't maybeknow you were guinea pigs but but you'vebeen you've been the first group that'sdone this and we hope that this starts amovement we hope that competitions willstart to integrate environmental impactin criteria and you know support morestudents learning about this so thankyou all for being here and thinkingabout these things and working toimprove the world for the rest of usit's great to be here and I'm excited tohear more about you sorry once again forthis part the prompt was the problemthat you guys are working to solve andthe title of your project and if you canfit it a sentence about what yourproject is doing hi my name is LynetteMehra I'm a molecular biologistbiochemistI'm a UCSF alumna my project is calledcommon objects for an uncommon purposeand we're a group of stunt professionalslooking to help reduce unconscious biasin STEM and what we're really trying totarget with our project is how are wegoing to reach people that don't want tolearn about it and so our question ishow can we use art to create socialsocial changehi everyone my name is Darrell dipti andthis is my teammates are now and Jack weare working on a sonic eyewear projectand the problem we're trying to solve isto help the blind better navigate theirsurroundings with better confidence andspatial awareness we are creatingtechnology that uses echolocation tohelp them achieve that hi everyone myname is Davide I am part of a team thatis based in Hong Kong we developed atthe beginning of 2018 project Spartanwhich is a modular kit for prostheticdevices our goal is to create aprosthetic device that can grow withchildren this way it will lower cost andwill hopefully have higher adoptionrates thank you hello I'm Tess and mypartner and I are working on making moreinclusive dance spaces in the East Bayyeah it's called dance with amputees andthat's yeah hi my name is Dana and thisis my teammate Lucas and we'readdressing the Arsenic problem in ruralCalifornia because there's a lot ofsmall water systems that don't have atechnical manager of financial capacityto introduce water treatmenttechnologies at an affordable rate sothat's the problem that we're addressingthrough an electrochemical treatmenttechnology known as acai or ear cathodeassisted iron electro Englishhi everyone my name is Emily I'm withtheir dear bio engineering major here atBerkley and just to throw some quickstats at you 66% of the world doesn'thave access to radiography and there'sonly about one orthopedic surgeon and amillion in Nigeria alone and that makesit really hard to diagnose fractures sothat's where my projects Fraxel comes inwe're diagnosing and monitoringfractures without the use of imaginghello my name is Nina I graduated fromUC Irvine last June and right now I'mworking for a nonprofit called earthteam who provides sustainable youthinternships for underserved youth I didnot know that this was a competition butI thought this was a fun workshop so Ijust came here to learn good afternooneverybodyrecent recently graduated from theMasters of translational medicine hereat UC Berkeley I'm here with Ricardohe's our second technical advisor and weare building the first what I will becapable of detecting air trapping that'san early marker of a chronic obstructivepulmonary disease that they're leadingcause of death in the world okay I'mimpressedthank you all both for your incredibleideas and for being able to articulatethem so clearly and so quickly and nowit's my honor to introduce Jeremy Faludiwho is a sustainable design strategisthe has contributed to six books onsustainable design and has co-authoredthe Autodesk sustainability workshop weare thrilled to have him with us andworking with all of you today andwithout further ado here's Jeremy[Applause]hi everyone thanks for having meand so we're going to talk today abouthow to how to quantify environmentalimpacts good and bad basically how torun the numbers on sustainability andthat will be most of the workshop andthen they'll be a bit at the end as wellfor finding better greener materials forthings and so it's interesting there Iwas sent little blurbs on most of theteams but not a couple of them so therethere's like the the dance spaces andwhat was yours again yeah yes those willwe'll see how applicable this is toyours but we'll hopefully it will gowell but one thing that I wanted tostart off with at first was just theidea of sorry hold on here is it soactually but before we get started Iwanted to there we goso before we get started because therewere so many medical device projects Iwanted to put in a little flag becausehistorically medical devices areterrible sustainability wise and I see acouple of heads nodding that's good youknow this already that's goodbut there's this there's this phenomenonthat happens in the medical deviceindustry a lot where people use kind ofmoral licensing or a halo effect to sayoh we're already doing good in the worldby saving people's lives and so likewe're done we don't need to do anythingelse it's the it's the same thing thatand you know this not to make peoplefeel guilty this is just to illustratean unconscious bias that people havewhich is you know like the reason thatstores have sales is because peopleactually buy more stuff when they thinkthey're getting a good deal you know thestores have run the numbers on this thepeople buying more at sales have not orpeople going out to dinner if they ordera side salad they will actually oftenconsume more calories than if theydidn't and so you know the fact thatthere is a salad present makes you thinkthat this is just a healthier dinner butyou know you want to run the numbers onthese things and avoid these unconsciousbiases so so if you do have a medicaldevice please don't just design for thepatient in the room but also design forall the other patients in the rest ofthe world which is you your kids thefactory workers the communities and andyou know don't always be hyper focusedon just the one patient that happens tobe in the room but okay so how do yourun the numbers on sustainability wellthe most sort of long-term credible andaccepted way is lifecycle assessmentit's definitely not a perfect way aswe'll see later but but it is reallygood and so we're going to talk abouthere is what is LCA for what are thethings that it measures and doesn'tmeasure and how to do it we wouldprobably are not going to get to thesensitivity analysis and and scenarioswe'll see how that goes but probablyjust the the first three things for alittle introduction here and so to startoff what is LCA for well this is kind ofa tricky thing to answer because an LCAcan be as simple as you know like halfan hour of work which is what youfolks are gonna do today in a very roughway with look-up tables and that's not areal LCA but I had quote unquote realLCA is one of these things where you youcould spend six to ten months and maybeor maybe $100,000 on a professionalconsultant to do an LCA for you andthat's like a serious LCA that couldbecome an environmental productdeclarations or other marketing documentor legal document but most people whoare startups can't afford that and sothe question really is what is your LCAfor and how far down this rabbit hole doyou want to go because you can goinfinitely far down so I would say ifyou're doing quick cheap LCA like we'redoing here the benefits that it can giveyou are you can identify what thebiggest impacts are and what kinds ofimpacts they are you know is it climatechange as a toxicity is it land use etcand it can help you set a baseline andset improvement targets so you can sayokay today our impacts are this or ifyou haven't designed your product it youcan say a standard competitor in themarket their environmental impacts arethis and so we want to do I don't knowmaybe thirty percent better by you knowtwo years from now or something so youcan actually quantify where you're atnow and set targets for how much betteryou want to be and then it can help youguide choices as well so if you'rethinking what material should we makethis part out of you can look at tendifferent materials twenty differentmaterials in an LCA database and see ohactually this one is really good thisone is terrible like actually one of theteams that that submitted the blurs thatI read through they mentionedpolyurethane asearth-friendly material that's non-toxicunfortunately that's not true but youwouldn't necessarily know that unlessyou had some quantitative tool to runthe numbers on things and that's whatLCA is for you can compare theenvironmental impacts of polyurethaneagainst other plastics like PE T whichis actually a lower impact and lowertoxicity and just to give you an exampleof what some of these things are sothere is a big hairdryer company manyyears ago who contracted me to do alittle bit of LCA work for them becausethey were very excited they were aboutto release their eco hair dryer productwhich they it was eco because they hadreduced the amount of plastic in thecase by I 20 or 30 percent or somethingand I was like hmm that's here that'syour eco hair dryer because I kind ofalready knew what the result was gonnabe because I've done this before so Idid an analysis of all the differenthardware components of their hair dryerand these are the plastic parts in thecase and just this one part right hereis bigger than all of those put togetherany guesses on what that one part was noalthough although this one the secondbiggest one was metal it was the heatercoils that you know used specialnichrome wire and so that was reallyhigh impact what's that no sorry thereason that I asked people this is cuzit's hard oh you're getting very closeyou're getting closeroh that said that's coming up nextthat's not even on this slide yet but noso at the end of the cord was a groundfault interrupter circuit which is alittle circuit that prevents youfrom getting electrocuted if you dropthe hairdryer in the bath which you knowlegitimately good thing but but likethat like one inch by two inch circuitboard had more impacts than anythingelse because electronics has a lot ofembodied energy and toxins and you knowrare minerals and stuff like that so soyeah so I and then getting to the energyuse so all of the things in thatprevious slide added up together arethis and then here is the transportationfrom China to the US you know kind ofand then this was the energy use duringthe hairdryers life and so yeah so I waslike yeah do whatever you want with thehardwire it basically doesn't matterit's really the energy used during thehairdryers life that's the importantthing and so thankfully about a year orI don't know maybe two years after Icame and talked to them they didactually come out with a moreenergy-efficient hairdryer that reducedthe energy use by I think I think twentyfive percent actually or at leastfifteen percent it was a pretty bigreduction so I was like yes LCA for thewin so that's how you know you canidentify the biggest impacts and you canalso establish these baselines and guidechoices so this was their packaging foractually a different product and so wecan see those who are what the impactsare today and we can do some quickchecks of what if you make it out ofpaper board instead what if you made akit out out of corrugated cardboardinstead you know how much differencewill it makeand so you could see that just onesimple change that you know you couldspend a week of design time changing thepackaging from this PVC blister pack toa paper board and you could cut theenvironmental impacts of that packagingby two thirds basically so it shows youwhat is an achievable target you knowwhat's easy what's hard and you couldtry out ten different ideas forpackagingyeah no it is it is more common thatit's hard on microphone you mean sorryso like the question was is it verycommon for like environmental choices tobe easy to make and just overlooked oris it like more common that it's atechnical constraint that prevents themfrom being environmentally friendly yeahit is much more common for it to be atechnical constraint or or more often abusiness model constraints yeah so so inthe case like packaging is really easyto make a change on but the packaging isyou know would be a tiny percentage ofthe impact for this product and and formost products yeah so then there's thequestion you know what are we measuringhere you know you see you see that thesebars have different colors sliced up inthem what are what are the sort ofthings that you think should be measuredwhat are some thoughts see you - sureabsolutely what else with it ah sothat's an interesting one so energy byitself is not necessarily an impact youknow like a kilowatt hour of electricityfrom solar panels has a very differentimpact from than a kilowatt hour ofenergy from a coal-fired power plant andso what are those impacts that you thatyou care aboutsure so so when you're saying clean whatare what would be what would be a dirtyenergy what are the things that would beemitted by by that guy which is in facta coal-fired power electricity like acleaner energy or coming from water aswell so water use is another thing thata lot of people measure yeah absolutelyor yeah from a coal-fired power plantthere's the there's the carbon emissionsof course there's sulfur dioxideemissions which causes acid rain there'sparticulate emissions which causescancer and there's yet various sothere's Mercury various other stuff aswell yeaheven even radioactive particles actuallyif nuclear power plants just ground upthey're used up fuel and burned it theywould produce less radiation pollutionthan Coal Fired power plants do todaybecause there's so much of it what elsewhat are some other things can bemeasured yeah consumptions of materialwho's sourcing can be detrimental to theenvironment I'm thinking like forexample lithium who is like really hardmaterial to source totally yeah mineraldepletion and back there deforestationyeah absolutely yeah land use and andhabitat destruction I would like to saypublic health impacts mm-hmm yeah I'dsay very human labour oh so that is agood one but LCA does not measure it itonly measures environmental impacts notsocial yeah and we had one up herewhether the components are biodegradableor not so that you can indirectlymeasure but what your what you'reactually measuring withsee a is like what pollution is beingcreated you know what what chemicals aregoing into rivers or into the air orsomething and so if a product isbiodegradable basically what will happenis you know when you're running thenumbers like this instead of the end oflife having some impactyou know let's say this big you mightsay that it is that's either eliminatingthose impacts in which case your totalscore is better or maybe it can becompost that helps grow food crops orthe next generation of whatever plantyou're harvesting and so you couldpotentially have negative impacts hereas well so yeah like like buildingsconstructed out of wood they can have apartly negative carbon impact becausethey are sequestering carbon that thetrees pull out of the air yeah so that'sthat's kind of an indirect measurementbut yet so so the the answer of whatactually gets measured is it depends onthe methodology and there are differentmethodologies so I'm sure you've allheard of a carbon footprint that is alifecycle assessment where they're onlymeasuring carbon and and othergreenhouse gases you know methanenitrous oxide stuff like that but thething is when you do an LCAyou can get way more data than that forthe same amount of work because the workthat you do is gathering the inventoryof materials and quantifying thetransportation and electricity use andall that and you just dump it into somesoftware and that software can eithertell you just the carbon impacts or itcan tell you all these different thingsso this is the the u.s. EPA's version ofwhat they look at it's called Tracy andit measures resource depletion itmeasures fossil fuel depletion but notmineral depletion sadlyEKOS doesn't health yet climate changeso that's the co2 acid rain ecotoxicitywhich is things that are toxic to plantsand animals but not humans and watereutrophication severn know whateutrophication does anyone know whateutrophication is no one person backthere it's when an excessive amount ofnutrients get into waterways like riversand lakes yeah totally and then you getalgae blooms and it's bad for the fishand stuff yeahand radiation ozone and habitatdestruction and then for human healthcarcinogens smog particulates so so yeahthis is what Tracy measures and it's thestandard in the u.s. it's not myfavorite though the one that I prefer isone put together by a few Europeangovernments and nonprofits called recipeand it does measure mineral depletionwhich Tracy does not and it measures tothe starts to different kinds ofeutrophication three different kinds ofecotoxicity two different kinds ofland-use and yeah and it measures alittle more for human health as wellso regardless though it does not measureeverything you know it doesn't measuresocial impacts and honestly the toxicitystuff is pretty marginal like it'spretty decent at carcinogens but therejust isn't very good toxicity data outthere on most things you know so like ifyou remember water bottles that are madeof polycarbonate the whole I'm blankingon the word but - endocrine disruptorsyeah they they don't measure that andthere's various other things they don'tmeasure so it's it's not perfect by anymeans but it is you know the best toolwe have and where does this data comefrom there's some governments that havegone out and measured factories you knowso people from the EPA have goneand measured how much co2 is acoal-fired power plant emitting and howmany particulates and etc and there arecommercial databases as well whereprivate companies will go out and andmeasure stuff as well and then thequestion is you've you've got all thisdata how do you fairly compare thisstuff you know how many kilos of co2emissions are equivalent to an acre ofdeforestation you know or how many gramsof arsenic in the water is equivalent toyou know a gallon of water use and thisis this is a tricky thing that peopledisagree about a lot and so they'rethey're different camps on this and it'skind of I kind of think of it likephysics in the 1700s you know it's atotal mess actually but your alternativeis guesswork and superstition so and andI'll show you a couple approaches thatpeople have to deal with this yeah andsorry the slides are getting cut off wedon't quite know what's going on withthe projector there but but yeah itshould say LCA impacts by category sothis is a lifecycle assessment of a 3dprinter that I did a couple years agoand it's measuring 18 different kinds ofenvironmental impacts using the recipemethod and the different colors here arethe different life cycle stages so theblue is the machinery of the printeritself you know all the steel that hadto be dug out of the ground will ironthat had to be dug out of ground turnedinto steel and glass and electronics andall that kind of stuff and thentransportation and disposal are in therebut they're so small you can't reallysee them and then yellow is theelectricity used during the printing ofof the products and then the dark brownis material use so thatactually what's getting printed by the3d printer and then the lighter orangeis the waste it's all the material thatgot used up but didn't end up in thefinal product and you can see thatgenerally speaking the electricityduring the printing was the biggestimpact by far in almost all thecategories but if you wanted to saywhat's the biggest impact overall youknow are you sure that that is thebiggest impact overall what if what ifwater use is really really important inthat case it was actually the making ofthe printerthat was the biggest impact and so thisis the this is the problem is that ifyou're looking at all these differentvariables separately you have harddecisions to make and you know if youhave ten different alternatives you knowif you've done 10 different LCAs andyou're trying to choose which design tomove forward with you know like it'sjust too hard for your brain to balance18 different variables across 10different options and so and the otherthing is that when people are makingdecisions like this they often do it insort of an ad hoc way they're like oh Iknow climate change is really importantso think of this kind of go by that oneand and so so what I prefer is thesingle score oh yeah yeah can you talk alittle bit about the units on the rightsure yeah so like climate change ismeasured in kilos of co2 equivalents andyou know most people are familiar withthat but that by itself is also anormalization and weighing you know it'sit's got methane it's got nitrous oxideit's got chlorofluorocarbons whateverand those are all combined into theequivalent kilos of co2 and then thereare other things like so for ozonedepletion it's measured by a particularchlorophyll orcarbon that was sort of a baseline yeahso so for example with with this 3dprinter the impacts per part printedwere about nine kilos of co2 per partprinted and they were about you knowfive times ten to the minus seven kilosof CFC you know for ozone etc it's a -down the line yeah and so so yes how doyou make sense of all that there aresystems like recipe and like Tracy whichwill normalize all these things into thesame units and they're meaningless unitsthey're points but they are all the sameunits and then they weigh them so thatyou can get a single score so this istelling you the summary of everythingthat was here but it's making thedecisions for you so you don't have toworry oh is water depletion reallyactually more important than everythingelse on here I don't know you know sothis is a peer-reviewed system that'sbeen put together by academics and andgovernment agencies over the past twentyfive years to figure out how to put allthose things together into a singlescore so that you can just say yesenergy use is the most important impactand now I can compare ten differentthings all on one graph and it'll bereally easy but yeah but but there iswell yeah so speaking of comparisons sothis is an LCA that I did of an averagebuilding in California versus a buildingof this company that I used to work forand again if you're trying to seewhether a is better than B and you'redoing it on all these differentvariables at once you know you cangenerally see that the the green one isbetter but how much better is it and sothat's the other thing thatnormalization and weighing is good forit can very clearly show you that thisbuilding is less than half the impactsof theaverage building and you can still seehow much of that is due to fossil fueldepletion and climate change and andradiation and etc but there aredifferent methods for this so the methodup at the top there is eco indicatorwhich is a yeah another European methodand then this one down here is Tracy andthese are two analyses of the sameproduct and you can obviously seethey're very different results withdifferent recommendations about what thebiggest impacts are you know this onewould say oh it's actually this piece ofmanufactured part that's the toppriority whereas that one would say thatit's the transportation that it's thetop priority and and this is why thereare two camps on normalization andweighing so you know some people arelike oh there are too many valuejudgments and we don't know and so we'rejust gonna look at those you know theseparate impacts but yeah okay so anyany questions on that before we get intodoing LCA yeah so given that there's allthese different kind of frameworks forconducting LCA is how often do are therethird parties that check when a companyruns a particular LCA to see if they'reactually getting the numbers yeahabsolutely so that's that's a goodquestion like when you read someoneelse's LCA how do you know whether totrust it or not and the best ones aredone according to iso 1404 teh standardyou know which is an internationalstandard and part of that is that theymust be third party checked yeah andagain that's part of why a serious LCAis expensive and time-consuming whereasyou can use LCA as a design tool youknow on your own in five minutes yeahis there like a singular agency forthird-party checking okayno look I've been a third-party reviewerfor an LCA for HP yeah going back to thebeginning of the data gathering is therea standard on what are all the differentcomponents are parts of a lifecycle thatone would measure for different types ofprojects or do you just kind of decidebecause I know we're art so I imagine wewould look at you know our differenttypes of art but for example if you havemultiple prototypes of you know a stampfor a heart or you know a piece for youknow one of the medical devices do youthen do an LCA on each of the differentprototypes or each of the differentparts or do you do it depending on howmany uses you'd get thank you for beinga perfect setup to my next section yeahso those are good questions so the waythat you actually do LCA is you setboundaries of what you're going toinclude what you're not going to includein your analysis you do a functionalunit which is the environmental impactsper service given and and I'll give youmore detail on this in a minute and thenyou do the inventory gathering all theyeah how much steel how much plastic howmuch blue glass etc etc how much energyuse how much transportation and then youcompute and compare stuff and then youtry to make sense of it all and so forboundarieswhat do you include yeah you couldinclude everything from the mining ofmaterials or growing of wood or whateverto the manufacturing it into a materialand transporting it to your factorywhere you make a product out of it andtransporting it to the userand then the electricity use during thelife of the product or water use orwhatever gets used and then end-of-lifeyou know is it landfill does itincinerate it as it recycled whatever sothat is athe grave boundary or scope and that'sobviously the most complete that's thebest kind of you can do but it might betoo time-consuming and costly for youand depending on what you're trying todo if you're just trying to say is itbetter to do injection molded plastic oris it better to do bent sheet metal thenyou could just look at the manufacturingstage and do what's called a gate togate boundary where you don't care whathappens before this gate you don't carewhat happens after this gate you're justlooking in here and you can do cradle togate where you just look atmanufacturing but don't worry about whathappens during use and end-of-life andyou can just look at end-of-lifewhatever it'll depend on what questionyou're trying to answer and so this isagain not what is LCA for but what isyour LCA for and also with boundariesthere's the question of how far out doyou go you know when you're looking atyour factories impacts do you just lookat the natural gas that you burn withinyour factory or do you also look at thethe electricity that you got from thecoal-fired power plant a hundred milesaway and what its impacts are etc andthen the the biggest is also looking atwhat happens with your user as well theelectricity use that happens there etcand it's one of these things where youknow if you're trying to measure a bladeof grasshow big is a blade of grass well it'svery easy to just you know cut off theblade of grass itself but there are allthese roots that extend deep into therest of the earth just like your producthas roots back into the supply chain andthe downstream value chain etc and themore of those you measure the morecomplete a picture you'll get but themore work you'll have to do the moreexpensive it is and the more uncertaintythey'll be so so yeah and then thefunctional unit this was your otherquestion about how do you determine isit the impacts per item oror whatever and this is super importantfor your analyses so so here two coffeecupsnow this ceramic mug actually uses a lotmore resources and required a lot moreenergy to manufacture because it has tobe fired in a kiln so does that meanthat the paper cup is a moreeco-friendly coffee cup I see headsshaking why not yeah exactly it's theit's the number of uses because theceramic mug you'll probably use threehundred five hundred times before you Idon't know it breaks or and you lose itor whateverwhereas this only gets used once and sowhen you're doing an LCA it's not justenvironmental impacts total itsenvironmental impacts per unit ofservice and so the unit of service hereis drinking a cup of coffee right sowhen you do an LCA you want to do ananalysis of the environmental impactsper cup of coffee drunk so it'll bekilos of co2 per cup of coffee drunk youknow acres of land deforestation per cupof coffee drunk etc and then you can goand do your inventory you know get yourbill of materials and have the weightson everything and transportation andenergy and whatever other consumablesyou have and and also the manufacturingprocesses as well you know is theplastic injection molded is it you knowis it a sheet is it laser cut etc etcand what happens at the end of its lifeand then you compute the impacts andthere are different ways to do this youknow usually you'll use software to dothis but what we're gonna do herebecause this is just you know superquick and dirty intro is I'll havelook-up tables for you actually not theokollohtable I have a more extensive one thatyou can downloadbut it's it's really just a lookup tableso you say that your product has a tenthof a pound of ABS plastic so you'll godown to the table you say okay first rowright there abs and it has 47 oh columnmilla points again this is a normalizedweighed thing that has a lot of thingsin it so 47 points per pound and I saidthat I had a tenth of a pound soforty-seven times point one that's theimpact of the raw material of the ABSnow that ABS is injection molded so I godown and look at the forming and sayokay injection molding 11 points perpound so again 11 times point one addedon to the 47 times point one and youjust build up your impacts like this andyeah and the different software if youwant to get into software the two bigones are SEMA Pro and Gabi those are thethe big professional tools the easiestone for you to learn with I would say issustainable mines and it also has a likefree trial period so it doesn't costanything to start out with and but itdoesn't do as good analysis as seam Proor Gabi and so you know if you want toget more serious I would go towardsthose but they're user interfaces arestraight out of the 1990s so you havebeen warned yeah whereas this issustainable mines interface yeah it's alittle friendlier and also there's onethat's a plug-in for SolidWorks CAD youknow if you're a mechanical engineer soif you've modeled something and assignedmaterials in the CAD software you canjust hit a button and it'll tell you afew thingssustainability wise and then the lastthing is interpreting results you knowyou look at all these graphs and try tofigure out what they're saying to youyou know where the biggest impacts areand what you might be able to do aboutthem and so that is it any otherquestions conceptually before we getinto ityeah so what's your thoughts on acompany that produces a widget that mayhave X amount of negative points butthey say for every product purchasewe'll plant an oak tree somewhere thatwill suck up all the carbon which isawesomeuh yeah well you could do an LCA of thatand you could determine how many kilosof carbon are gonna be sequestered bythat tree and whether it balances outthe impacts of making the product how doyou typically determine the life time ofa product because imagine that makesdifference if you think cop was gonna beused for three years or for seven yearsthat will make a big difference to yourLCA absolutelyand yeah the elsi-8 tools themselvescan't help you with that that'ssomething that you will have to figureout based on what the users usagepatterns are and like rates ofobsolescence or likelihood of breakingor things like that so so you'll thatyou're kind of on your own for thatthere there are no set tools for that sowith the recent changes of mentality ofthe EPA do we still throw some of thethings that they do they suggest the EPAis a good organization you know theythey you know they they do their bestbut there is more public andgovernmental support for this stuff inEurope and LCA was first created inEurope so it just has a longer historyof it as well but yeah I think oh uh Iguess one more since Europe seems to bea little bit more comprehensive but ifyou adhere to the European standards doyou also adhere to the u.s. standards orthe SATs are different so like wouldn'twe worth it to go European road rightyeah I mean you can doI've certainly done analyses with bothbecause it's basically you know youbuild your model and software and youjust have all the inventory in there andto analyze it with one method versusanother you just click a button to dothis analysis or you know to do theother analysis most people includingmyself usually choose one or the otherjust out of convenience but you but youabsolutely can do both yeah and it's agood way of doing a kind of sensitivityanalysis to determine to double-checkyourself about are these really thebiggest impacts so yeah cool so I thinkthat that is it for the lecture part andnow is the time for well so actually youknow yet if they are gonna get startedwhile they're eating then I will I'llstart out showing you guys the tools toget started yeah so okay so I haveactually an an entire online class worthof resources up online on how to dogreen design and it is on venturewell.org so if you go to venturewell.org I guess the projector iscutting off the URL bar but there it isso if you go to venture world org andand go ahead and bust out your laptop'sbecause you'll you'll want to use thisfor the next thing that we do and if yougo to ideas and impact and tools fordesign and sustainability then you getto this page and under measuringsustainabilityyou get lifecycle assessment as as oneof the ways to measure sustainabilitythere's also a couple eco certificationsthere but but yeah so lifecycleassessment is there and it tells you thekind of stuff that I was just tellingyou right now and what we will use forexercise here is a couple of theseresources so if you just scroll downthere is this thing equalizer 2.0 whichis a lookup table of thousands ofmaterials and manufacturing processesand things it's just free to downloadand so if you click on that then youwill get this PDF that lets you lookstuff up and you can see it has thingslike organic chemicals and it has and ithas things like paint and inks and PLAsand electronics and transportation heatyeah etc etc packaging paper board woodetc etc metals brass and so so that'llbe one tool that you have and then Ialso have a handy little excel file thatcan help you do the math and graph itfor you and that is in this little linkhere that says template spreadsheet andso you click on that and you get thisthing here which lets you type in youknow material a has let's say 231 pointsper kilo and there is one kiloof it and for now let's just assume thatall your uncertainties are about 40percent or higher but so so on thisequalizer thing let's uh let's say steelI'm gonna I'm gonna look up steel andI'm just gonna do a search for it okayso oh this is stainless steel let me domild steel okayso mild steel and it says that lowalloyed converter steel is about 231millipedes per kilo and so I type in 231right there and there's 1 kilo or maybethere's half a kilo of it and boom andyou can see the graph update and thenwhat kind of processing is there whathappened to the steel to make it into aproduct maybe it was coated with zincmaybe was welded maybe was drilled let'ssay deep drawing I don't know like likemaking a steel can so that's 26 pointsper kilo and so type in 26 there and ohyeah and I said that it was actuallyhalf a kilo not a kilo so there you goupdate that and and this is pretty muchitand then you can also look at thetransport so you know have some stuff inthere and electricity use andend-of-life so yet so back in equalizerthe end of yeah waste treatment you cansay 26 Mill appoints per kilo and sotype in 26 there and again I had saidthat it was just point five kilos andand yeah okay so did anyone have troubledownloading either of these from thewebsiteokay cool so now you are all set goahead and have munchies and you can getstart
Workshop Facilitator: Jeremy Faludi, author of the of VentureWell’s “Tools for Design and Sustainability” –
Learn how to incorporate circular economy and environmental design principles into your project and gain valuable resources in this hands-on workshop. “Inventing Green” will help student innovators examine the potential environmental impacts of their innovations from the very beginning phase of their invention/innovation. This workshop will be an exploration of the concept of life-cycle assessment and metrics for the environmental impact of new products in their design, production process and end of life.
Open to all University of California students! (Valid UC student ID required for entry)
Food and drinks will be provided!
Overview lecture on life-cycle assessment (LCA) and the different LCA tools available for use. Jeremy will provide insights about the process of completing an LCA and give an introduction to theVentureWell Toolkit for Sustainable Design and others.
LCA Team Exercise: Jeremy will work with teams to help them assess the environmental impacts of their products in the design process, use and end of life.